Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Health Risk of Daily Fluoride Intake of Some Selected Dentifrices used in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Kpalap, Pretty Tonubari, Bartimaeus, Ebirien-Agana Samuel, Brown, Holy

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2021/v10i330163

Background: Several dentifrices are marketed and used by individuals for the purposes of cleaning and maintaining the aesthetic and health of the teeth, promote oral hygiene and aid in removal of dental plaque and food materials from the teeth. This study was thus designed to assess the pH and fluoride concentrations in selected dentifrices and the possible health risks associated with daily fluoride intake of these selected dentifrices used in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: This study estimated the pH and fluoride concentration of the different dentifrices by the pH meter and Ion Selective Electrode method. In addition, the Daily fluoride intake (DFI), Chronic daily intake (CDI) and Hazard quotient (HQ) for the different dentifrices to assess the risk of fluoride intake was calculated.

Results: From the result of this study, it was noticed that only one dentifrice, chewing stick (Massularia acuminate) has a pH (6.8) that conform to the recommended pH range (6.0-7.5) by NAFDAC while the other dentifrices have a pH value (7.6-10.1) that was higher than the pH range recommended by NAFDAC. For the fluoride concentration, it was observed that some of the dentifrices like Dr. Agnes Nwanmma dental powder (440 ppm), Dr. White dental powder (480 ppm) and Eradental powder (760 ppm) have low fluoride concentration when compared with the fluoride standard concentration stipulated by SON/ NAFDAC (825-1250 ppm) while the other dentifrices showed fluoride concentration within the range stipulated by stipulated by SON/ NAFDAC but they were below the fluoride concentrations stated on their different labels. The DFI of the dentifrices was within the range (53.86-131.58 mg/day), CDI (0.744-1.8275 mg/kg/day and the HQ (12.27-30.46).

Conclusion: Although the fluoride concentrations of the dentifrices were within the normal range as stipulated by NAFDAC and SON, the observation of HQ > 1 in all the dentifrices implied that dentifrices commonly used in Nigeria may pose health risk to the consumers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Zero Prevalence of HIV and HCV Coinfection in the Highly HIV-infected Population of Rivers State, Nigeria

Iheanyi O. Okonko, Tochi I. Cookey, Nnenna Frank-Peterside

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 9-16
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2021/v10i330164

Background: Hepatitis C affects 5–15% of the 38 million people living with HIV globally. Africa which has the second highest prevalence of HIV/HCV co-infection following Asia. This alarming statistics has made it crucial that studies be done to also ascertain the HIV/HCV co-infection prevalence in the country and host factors which may influence the co-infection.

Objective: Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the seroprevalence of HCV infection amongst the HIV population of Rivers state, Nigeria.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), in Rivers State, Nigeria, from February 2017 to September 2019.

Methods: In this study, 226 HIV-infected individuals were recruited comprising 105 males and 121 females. These subjects were screened for the presence of HIV and HCV using ELISA and was performed according to the kit manufacturer’s stipulations. The demographic characteristics of the participants were obtained using a questionnaire designed for the study.

Results: The presence of antibodies to HIV-1 reconfirmed the HIV status in all the study subject. A seroprevalence rate of 0.0% was observed for HIV/HCV infection. The ratio of females to males was found to be 1.2:1. The ages of the study population ranged from 16 to 70 years with a median age of 42.5 years. A large number (30.5%, n = 69) of the participants were within the age group 40 – 49 years, followed by those within 30 – 39 years (26.1%, n= 59), 50 – 59 years (17.3%, n = 39) and >59 years (13.7%, n = 31). Participants that were within younger age groups had less population; 20 – 29 years (9.7%, n = 22), with those that are <20 years having the least population (2.7%, n = 6). Many (49.1%, n = 111) of the study participants were found to be married. About 46.5% (n = 105) of them were single, while a few (4%, n = 10) were widowed.

Conclusion: No coinfection of HIV/HCV was found, in spite of Nigeria being endemic for HCV. However, despite this zero rate of HIV/HCV coinfection, routine screening for HCV markers should be carried out to reduce morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of In vitro Antioxidant and Qualitative Phytochemical Analysis of Methanol Leaf Extract of Fadogia cienkowskii Scheinf Fam. Rubiaceae

Vincent O. Chukwube, Elejeje O. Okonta, Christopher O. Ezugwu, Uchenna E. Odoh

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 17-23
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2021/v10i330165

Aim: Fadogia cienkowskii Scheinf has been used in ethno medicine for the treatment of pyrexia, convulsion in children, inflammation and malaria. The aim of this work is to ascertain the presence of some phytochemicals in the leaf of Fadogia cienkowskii Scheinf and to investigate the antioxidant property of the methanol leaf extract of the plant. 

Study Design: This work was designed to investigate the presence of some phytochemicals in the plant and to further evaluate the antioxidant property of the methanol leaf extract of the plant using three models.

Methodology: The pulverized leaves (1 kg) was extracted with 5.0 L of 95% methanol employing cold maceration technique. The extract obtained was dried using rotatory evaporator.    

Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical evaluations were carried out using standard methods. Antioxidant capacity was investigated using 2,2 diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl, ferric reducing antioxidant power and total antioxidant capacity models.   

Results: The percentage yield of extract is 20%. Flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, terpenoids, alkaloids and steroids were present in the extract. Total phenol concentration was 0.55+ 0.13 ug/ml. The amount of flavonoid was 3.28+0.01 g by gravimetry with sample weight of 5+0.02 gm. The antioxidant activity of the plant methanol leaf extract showed maximal effect as demonstrated by its EC 50 of 3.811+0.03 ug/ml compared with the ascorbic acid standard 4.989+0.02 ug/ml using DPPH method. This result was validated by the FRAP and TAC models. 

Conclusion: The presence of polyphenolic biomolecular compounds in the extract confirms the use of the plant in Ethnomedicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Theoretical Investigations and Molecular Dynamic Stimulation of Isoniazid as a Corrosion Inhibitor

O. E. Obolo, D. T. Oloruntoba, J. O. Borode

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 24-31
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2021/v10i330167

API5L Steel is known as one of the most useful materials on earth which is also subject to corrosion in certain environments. Many methods have been used to minimize its corrosion, but the use of inhibitors is widely accepted. The use of green inhibitors has gained wide usage because of their environmental friendliness. The theoretical investigations of isoniazid as corrosion inhibitor was carried out using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), whereas theoretically, quantum chemical parameters and molecular dynamic simulations of the inhibitor were studied. The analyses of the experimental results showed that the expired drug (isoniazid) decreased the corrosion rate of API5L steel in a 0.5M H2SO4 medium. The inhibition efficiency decreased with a decrease in inhibitor concentration. FTIR results showed that the inhibition mechanism is physical through the functional groups present in the expired drug. Relying on quantum chemical parameters and molecular dynamic simulations results, the adsorption/binding strength of the concerned inhibitor molecule on API5L steel surface follows a good order. The computed adsorption/binding energy values (Eads) for the various isolated concentrations from the inhibitor indicate the adsorption process to be non-covalent (physiosorption) which is in good agreement with the literature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatic Enzyme Effects of an Imperata cylindrica Extract

M. O. Nwokike, S. I. Ghasi, E. C. Ogbuagu, M. N. Ezenwaeze, Akpotu E. Ajirioghene

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 32-40
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2021/v10i330168

This study was performed to investigate the effects of aqueous Imperata cylindrica root extract on hepatic enzyme levels of alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Forty (48) male wistar rats were divided into six groups consisting of eight animals each. Diabetes mellitus was induced using intraperitoneal administration 150 mg/kg body weight of alloxan and treatment was carried out for a period of 28 days. The first group served as the normal control and received only feed and water ad libitum. In Group 2 were diabetic rats without treatment with extracts. Group 3: diabetic rats treated with 200 mg/kg aqueous Imperata cylindrica root extract. Group 4: diabetic rats treated with 400mg/kg aqueous Imperata cylindrica root extract. Group 5: diabetic rats treated with 600mg/kg ethanol extract of aqueous Imperata cylindrica root extract. While Group 6 was diabetic rats treated with 0.5mg/kg Glibenclamide. The liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly (p < 0.05) changed in rats treated with Alloxan (150mg/kg b.w.) while treatment with the respective dosages of extracts significantly changed the levels of these parameters to normal. The results obtained indicate that the different doses of aqueous Imperata cylindrica root extracts were beneficial in mending damages to the liver caused by Alloxan monohydrate in the male wistar rats.