Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences&nbsp;(ISSN: 2457-0745)</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish research papers, reviews and short communications in the areas of&nbsp;medical and pharmaceutical sciences. This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal. This journal will not only publish traditional full research reports, including short communications, but also this journal will publish reports/articles on all stages of the research process like study protocols, pilot studies and pre-protocols. This journal is novelty attracting, open-minded, peer-reviewed medical periodical, designed to serve as a perfectly new platform for both mainstream and new ground shaking works as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2457-0745 Analysis of Adverse Events Reports Submitted to the Food and Drugs Administration of the United States of America (2007-2012) <p><strong>Background:</strong> Many nations collect data on adverse events (AEs) associated with the use of drugs using what is generally referred to as the Spontaneous Reporting System (SRS) [1,2,3]. Analysis of such data is important in discovering hitherto unknown problems associated with drug use and in understanding the features of the variables related to the problem of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) [4,5,6]. The SRS of the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) of the United States of America (US), known as the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) [3], is probably the largest system for collecting data on AEs associated with drug use.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> (i) Find any trends in the variables associated with the problem of adverse events in drug use, (ii) Elucidate some of the issues raised in the literature by way of the evidence provided by the data, (iii) Find the drugs that were most cited as principal suspect in adverse events and (iv) Examine the data for any other notable attributes.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Quarterly Extracts from the FAERS database covering the period 2007 to 2012, which is publicly available on the website of the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA, US), were analysed. Out of the over fifty (50) variables contained in the extracts, fourteen (14) of them, which were thought to be relevant to the objectives of the study, were examined. Owing to the nature of the data, the tools of frequencies, proportions and averages were used in the analysis of it.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results of the analysis revealed that for the period 2007 – 2012, the reported cases of adverse events almost tripled (2.7 times), with annual growth rate of 22.1%. Reports on female subjects dominated throughout the period, accounting for a little over two-thirds of the reported cases annually and in the overall number of reports for the period. The proportion of cases that resulted in death appeared to be increasing over time. Non-health professionals are almost as likely as health professionals to report adverse events. Expedited reports (concerning events that are unexpected, from the perspective of the known pharmacology of the suspect drug(s)) accounted for the highest number of cases throughout the period. A large proportion of the cases were reported electronically with an indication of increasing trend over the period under review and in the years following.&nbsp; The age group most involved in adverse events associated with drug use is 45 – 64, followed by the age groups&nbsp; 65 and over,&nbsp; 45 – 59,&nbsp; 18 – 44&nbsp; and&nbsp; 0 – 17 in descending order of involvement when looked at from the point of view of number of reported cases. However the results of the analysis show that susceptibility to adverse events increases with age; the older one gets the more vulnerable one becomes to adverse events involving drug use. The analysis also revealed that some of the problems that prevent the best use of SRS data, such as missing values for age and sex, mentioned in the literature, existed during the period under consideration [7,8,9].</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is essential to encourage reporting of adverse events, especially accurate and prompt reporting. This is indispensable in dealing with the problem of adverse events in medication use comprehensively; as it not easy to obtain data on the variables involved with the problem through other means and SRS data provide useful insights, especially when keying out factors that contribute to the occurrence of adverse events associated with drug use.</p> Emmanuel M. Baah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-12 2019-11-12 1 17 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v8i1-230133 Ethnobotanic Survey of Aids Opportunistic Infections in the Ziguinchor District, Sénégal <p>HIV / AIDS infection is characterized by the reduction of the body's defenses favoring the occurrence "opportunistic" infections, as bronchitis, mycoses and tuberculosis etc. Thus, to fight against this virus, antiretrovirals are used.</p> <p>The Ziguinchor district (Senegal) has a higher seroprevalence rate of 2.2% above the national average of 0.7%. It is in this sense that a survey of two herbalists, 35 tradipraticians and eight resource persons was conducted to identify the plants used in the management of opportunistic AIDS diseases because as the populations often resort to phytotherapy. 88 plants were identified and divided into 79 genera and 38 families. Some species were mentioned very more frequently and in many diseases. These are: Cordila pinnata Poir. (78%), Guiera senegalensis (73.1%), Khaya senegalensis (67%), Icacina oliviformis (55%), Terminalia macroptera (55%), Cassia sieberiana (47%), etc. Leaves and roots constituted the greatest use in the form of macerated, infused, for drinking, bathing, or fumigation, etc. The expected result during this study was the establishment of a repertory of medicinal plants used for the management of opportunistic diseases.</p> Kady Diatta William Diatta Alioune Dior Fall Serigne Ibra Mbacké Dieng Amadou Ibrahima Mbaye Idrissa Manga ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-12 2019-10-12 1 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v8i1-230130 Effect of Aqueous Extract of Zingiber officinale (Ginger) on Some Biochemical Parameters in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes Rats <p><strong>Background:</strong> Appreciable number of medicinal plants are used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Aim of the Study:</strong> The present study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic activity of <em>Zingiber officinale </em>extracts and its potential mechanisms in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.</p> <p><strong>Study Duration: </strong>The period of the study was done on 30<sup>th</sup> September, 2018 at the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, university of Jos, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Albino rats of Wistar strain weighing between 130 g to 160 g were induced with single freshly prepared streptozotocin (55 mg/kg body weight). Diabetes was confirmed after forty eight hours in streptozotocin -induced rats showing fasting blood glucose levels &gt; 10 mmol/l. The rats were randomly divided into four (4) experimental groups (n = 4). A (Control diabetic group fed with normal feed), Group B (Normal control fed with normal feed), Group Group C (Diabetic rats treated with 400 mg/Kg body weight extract of ginger and Group D, (Diabetic rats are treated with 400 mg/Kg body weight of metformin). After 8 days the animals were sacrificed and blood samples were collected for biochemical and hematological analysis. Changes in the animal body weights were also measured within the period.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>From the results, it was observed that treatment of rats with extract of ginger compensates for the reduction of body weight, and caused an increase in the body weight of the treated rats (+11.5%) in contrast to 24.8% reduction observed in diabetic control. In the same order, serum glucose significantly decreased (p&lt;0.05) after the 8-day treatment compared to diabetic control. The extent of reversal of hyperglycemia in the ginger extract treated animals compared well with the metformin treated group. The results, therefore, showed that ginger extract has a significant (p&lt;0.05) hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rats and moreover, elevations in the measured biochemical parameters were significantly (p&lt;0.05) attenuated in rats treated with ginger extract.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> <em>Zingiber officinale </em>extracts has a significant effect on some biochemical parameters and hematological assays. These provide scientific evidence to confirm the traditional use of <em>Z</em>. <em>officinale</em> in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.</p> M. K. Jiyil C. D. Luka C. E. Mafuyai N. Pamela ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-14 2019-10-14 1 8 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v8i1-230131 Screening of Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Lasimorpha senegalensis for Antibacterial Activity <p>Traditional medicine, though an old practice in disease prophylaxis and therapy, is still widely employed globally to treat various human ailments. In this study conducted at the Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria between October 2018 and January 2019, methanolic and aqueous extracts of an aquatic plant <em>Lasimorpha senegalensis</em> were evaluated for antibacterial activities against human pathogens; <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>. Agar well diffusion method was used to determine the potency of<em> L. senegalensis</em> against the test organisms at different concentrations. Also, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by tetrazolium chloride microtiter dilution assay. Results showed that; inhibition zone diameters ranging from 0-14 mm for both test organisms using the plant extracts was less than that of the control (septrin and chloramphenicol) ranging from 0-26 mm. MIC ranged from 62.5 mg/ml to 500 mg/ml, lowest MIC was obtained with methanolic stem extract. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids responsible for the antibacterial activity. Therefore, <em>L. senegalensis</em> should be considered medicinally important as they contain biologically active compounds with curative potentials against infectious diseases.</p> Anumudu Obinna H. Akaniro Ifunanya R. Ofonegbu Mercy N. Ibediala John Kennedy C. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-25 2019-10-25 1 7 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v8i1-230132